Old Testament Comprehensive Bibliography – Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary

The following books and articles are some of those appearing on the Comprehensive Reading List for PhD candidates in Old Testament at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.


  • All the Old Testament articles in The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by David Noel Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  • And the relevant major articles in Dictionary of the Old Testament Historical Books. Edited by Bill T. Arnold and H. G. M. Williamson. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2005.
  • Albright, William Foxwell. The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra. New York: Harper & Row, 1949.
  • Barrera, Julio Trebolle. The Jewish Bible and the Christian Bible. Translated by W. G. E. Watson. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.
  • Cross, Frank Moore. From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
  • Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament: An Introduction. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Gaebelein, Frank E., ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Vol. 1, Introductory Articles. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979.
  • Harrison, R. K. “The Critical Use of the Old Testament.” BSac 146 (1989): 12-20.
  • ________. Introduction to the Old Testament. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2004.
  • Hess, Richard S., and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A. Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: InterVarsity, 1966.
  • ________. On The Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.
  • McKenzie, Steven L., and M. Patrick Graham, eds. The Hebrew Bible Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Louisville: John Knox, 1998.


  • Beale, G. K., ed. The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts? Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.
  • Bock, Darrell L. “Evangelicals and the Use of the Old Testament in the New.” BSac 142 (1985): 209-23, 306-19.
  • Broyles, Craig C., ed. Introducing Old Testament Interpretation: A Guide for Exegesis. Grand
  • Rapids: Baker, 2001.
  • Carson, D. A. Exegetical Fallacies. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996.
  • Dockery, David S. Biblical Interpretation Then and Now. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992.
  • Greidanus, Sidney. The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1988.
  • Hirsch, E. D., Jr. The Aims of Interpretation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
  • ________. Validity in Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.
  • Kaiser, Walter, and Moises Silva. An Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993.
  • Klein, George L., ed. Reclaiming the Prophetic Mantle. Nashville: Broadman, 1992.
  • Osborne, Grant. The Hermeneutical Spiral. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1991.
  • Patterson, Paige. “The Historical-Critical Study of the Bible: Dangerous or Helpful?” Theological Educator 37 (1988): 45-61.
  • Silva, Moises. Biblical Words & Their Meaning. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.
  • ________. God, Language & Scripture. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980.
  • Steck, Odil Hannes. Old Testament Exegesis: A Guide to the Methodology. Translated by J. D. Nogalski. Atlanta: Scholars, 1995.
  • Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students & Pastors. 3rd ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.


  • Barr, James. Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.
  • Deist, F. E. “Text, Textuality, and Textual Criticism.” JNSL 21 (1995): 59-67.
  • ________. Towards the Text of the Old Testament. Translated by W. K. Winckler. 2nd ed. Pretoria: N. G. Kerkboekhandel Transvaal, 1981.
  • Goshen-Gottstein, M. H. “The Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: Rise, Decline, Rebirth.” JBL 102 (1983): 365-99.
  • Jellicoe, Sidney. The Septuagint and Modern Study. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.
  • Talmon, Shemaryahu. “The Old Testament Text.” In From the Beginning to Jerome, 159-99. Vol. 1 of The Cambridge History of the Bible. Edited by P. R. Ackroyd and C. F. Evans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
  • Tov, Emanuel. “The Literary History of the Book of Jeremiah in the Light of Its Textual History.” In Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism, ed. J. H. Tigay, 211-37. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.
  • ________. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. 2nd ed. Jerusalem: Simor, 1997.
  • ________. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001.
  • ________. “Textual Criticism (OT).” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. D. N. Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  • ________. “The Use of Concordances in the Reconstruction of the Vorlage of the LXX.” CBQ 40 (1978): 29-36.
  • Waltke, Bruce K. “Goals of Textual Criticism.” WTJ 51 (1989): 93-108.
  • ________. “Old Testament Textual Criticism.” In Foundations for Biblical Interpretation, ed. D. S. Dockery, K. A. Mathews, and R. B. Sloan, 156-86. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1994.
  • Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Errol F. Rhodes. 2nd rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.


  • Cameron, Nigel M. de S. Biblical Higher Criticism and the Defense of Infallibilism in 19th Century Britain. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1987.
  • Hall, David R. The Seven Pillories of Wisdom. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1990.
  • Harrison, R. K., B. K. Waltke, D. Guthrie, and G. D. Fee. Biblical Criticism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978.
  • Knight, D. N., and G. M. Tucker, eds. The Hebrew Bible and Its Modern Interpreters. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.
  • Linnemann, Eta. Historical Criticism of the Bible: Methodology or Ideology? Translated by R. W. Yarbrough. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990.
  • McKenzie, S. L., and S. R. Haynes, eds. To Each Its Own Meaning. Rev. ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.
  • Rogerson, John. Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth Century: England and Germany. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985.
  • Tigay, Jeffrey, ed. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1985.

Canonical Criticism

  • Barton, John. Holy Writings, Sacred Text: The Canon in Early Christianity. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.
  • Beckwith, Roger T. The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.
  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Prophecy and Canon. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1977.
  • Childs, B. S. Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.
  • Davies, Philip. Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Bible. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.
  • Oswalt, John N. “Canonical Criticism: A Review from a Conservative Viewpoint.” JETS 30 (1987): 317-25.
  • Sanders, James A. Canon and Community: A Guide to Canonical Criticism. GBS. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.
  • ________. From Sacred Story to Sacred Text: Canon as Paradigm. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.
  • ________. Torah and Canon. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1972.
  • Waltke, Bruce K. “A Canonical Approach to the Psalms.” In Tradition and Testament, ed. J. S. Feinberg and P. D. Feinberg, 3-18. Chicago: Moody, 1981.

Form Criticism

  • Alt, Albrecht. “The Origins of Israelite Law.” In Essays on Old Testament History and Religion, trans. R. A. Wilson, 101-71. Garden Ci
    ty: Doubleday, 1967.
  • Buss, Martin J. Biblical Form Criticism in its Context. JSOTSS 274. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1999.
  • Hayes, John H., ed. Old Testament Form Criticism. San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 1974.
  • House, Paul R., ed. Beyond Form Criticism. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1992.
  • Longman, Tremper, III. “Form Criticism, Recent Developments in Genre Theory, and the Evangelical.” WTJ 47 (1985): 46-67.
  • Muilenburg, James. “Form Criticism and Beyond.” JBL 88 (1969): 1-18.
  • Waltke, Bruce K. “Oral Tradition.” In Inerrancy and Hermeneutic, ed. H. M. Conn, 117-35. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

Source Criticism

  • Albright, William F. Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan. Reprint ed. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1968.
  • Alt, Albrecht. Essays on Old Testament History and Religion. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1966.
  • Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1961.
  • Harrison, R. K., B. K. Waltke, D. Guthrie, and G. D. Fee. Biblical Criticism: Historical, Literary, and Textual. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978.
  • Kikawada, Isaac M., and Arthur Quinn. Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11. Nashville: Abingdon, 1985.
  • Noth, Martin. The Deuteronomistic History. JSOTSS 15. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1981.
  • Speiser, E. A. Genesis. AB. Garden City: Doubleday, 1964.
  • Wellhausen, Julius. Prolegomena to the History of Ancient Israel. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1885.

Literary and Narrative Criticism

  • Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. New York: Basic, 1981.
  • Avishur, Yitzhak. Studies in Biblical Narrative: Style, Structure, and the Ancient Near Eastern Literary Background. Tel Aviv: Archaeological Center, 1999.
  • Barton, John. “Intertextuality and the ‘Final Form’ of the Text.” In Congress Volume, Oslo, 1998, ed. A. LeMaire and M. Sæbo, 33-44. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
  • Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994.
  • Fishbane, Michael. Biblical Interpretation in Ancient Israel. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.
  • ________. “Revelation and Tradition: Aspects of Inner-Biblical Exegesis.” JBL 99 (1980): 343-61.
  • ________. “Types of Biblical Intertextuality.” In Congress Volume, Oslo, 1998, ed. A. Lemaire and M. Sæbo. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
  • Fokkelman, J. P. Narrative Art in Genesis. Amsterdam: van Gorcum, 1975.
  • Geller, Stephen A. Sacred Enigmas: Literary Religion in the Hebrew Bible. New York: Routledge, 1996.
  • ________. “Through Windows and Mirrors into the Bible: History, Literature and Language in the Study of the Text.” In A Sense of Text: The Art of Language in the Study of Biblical Literature, ed. Leon Nemoy, 3-40. JQR Supp. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1983.
  • Longman, T. Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987.
  • Mathews, Kenneth A. “Literary Criticism of the Old Testament.” In Foundations for Biblical Interpretation, ed., D. S. Dockery, K. A. Mathews, and R. B. Sloan, 205-31. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1994.
  • Schultz, Richard L. The Search for Quotation: Verbal Parallels in the Prophets. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1999.
  • Ska, J. L. “Our Fathers Have Told Us”: Introduction to the Analysis of Hebrew Narratives. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 1990.

Hebrew Poetry

  • Alonso-Schökel, Luis. A Manual of Hebrew Poetics. Subsidia Biblica. Rome: Pontifico Biblico Instituto, 1988.
  • Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
  • Avishur, Yitzhak. Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms. New York: Magnes, 1994.
  • Berlin, Adele. The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.
  • Cross, F. M., and D. N. Freedman. Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1975.
  • Freedman, David Noel. Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Early Hebrew Poetry. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1980.
  • Geller, Stephen A. Parallelism in Early Hebrew Poetry. Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1979.
  • ________. “A Poetic Analysis of Isaiah 40:1-2.” HTR 77 (1984): 413-20.
  • ________. “Theory and Method in the Study of Biblical Poetry.” JQR 78 (1982): 65-77.
  • ________. “Were the Prophets Poets?” Prooftexts 3 (1983): 211-21.
  • Gray, George Buchanan. The Forms of Hebrew Poetry. Jerusalem: KTAV, 1972.
  • Kugel, James L. The Idea of Biblical Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.
  • Kuntz, Kenneth. “Biblical Hebrew Poetry in Recent Research, Part 1.” CRBS 6 (1998): 31-64.
  • ________. “Biblical Hebrew Poetry in Recent Research, Part II.” CRBS 7 (1999): 35-79.
  • ________. “Engaging the Psalms: Gains and Trends in Recent Research.” CRBS 2 (1994): 77-122.
  • van der Meer, Willem, and Johannes C. de Moor, eds. The Structural Analysis of Biblical and Canaanite Poetry. Sheffield: JSOT, 1988.
  • Watson, Wilfred G. E. Classical Hebrew Poetry: A Guide to Its Techniques. JSOTSS. Sheffield: JSOT, 1986.


Introductory Works

  • Aharoni, Yohanan. The Land of the Bible. Translated and edited by Anson F. Rainey. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1979.
  • Currid, John D. Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997.
  • DeVaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
  • King, Philip J., and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  • Mathews, Victor. Social World of the Hebrew Prophets. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2001.
  • McNutt, Paula. Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.
  • Pedersen, Johannes. Israel: Its Life and Culture. Vols. 1-2. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991.
  • Perdue, Leo, Joseph Blenkinsopp, John J. Collins, and Carol Meyers. Families in Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
  • Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1955.

Archaeology and the Old Testament

  • Ben-Tor, Amnon, ed. The Archaeology of Ancient Israel. Translated by R. Greenberg. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
  • Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.
  • Finkelstein, Israel. “The Date of the Settlement of the Philistines in Canaan.” Tel Aviv 22 (1995): 213-39.
  • ________. “The Archaeology of the United Monarchy: An Alternative.” Levant 28 (1996): 177-87.
  • Hoerth, Alfred J. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998.
  • Isserlin, B. J. “The Israelite Conquest of Canaan: A Comparative Review of the Arguments Applicable.” PEQ (115): 85-94.
  • Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
  • ________. “Iron Age Chronology: A Reply to I. Finkelstein.” Levant 29 (1997): 157-67.
  • Richard, Suzanne, ed. Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2003.
  • Wood, Bryant G. “Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho: A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence.” BAR 16:2 (1990): 44-58.


  • Finkelstein, J. J. “Mesopotamian Historiography.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 107 (1963): 461-72.
  • Hallo, W. W. “Assyrian Historiography Revisited.” EI 14 (1978): 1-7.
  • Herion, Gary A. “The Impact of Modern and Social Science Assumptions on the Reconstruction of Israelite History.”
    JSOT 34 (1986): 3-33.
  • Hoffmeier, James K., ed. Faith, Tradition and History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1994.
  • Hoffner, Harry A., Jr. “Histories and Historians of the Ancient Near East: The Hittites.” Or 49 (1980): 283-332.
  • Kitchen, K. A. “Historical Method and Early Hebrew Tradition.” TynBul 17 (1966): 63-97.
  • Kofoed, Jens Bruun. Text and History: The Old Testament Texts as a Source for the History of Israel. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2005.
  • Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.
  • ________, ed. Israel’s Past in Present Research: Essays on Ancient Israelite Historiography. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1999.
  • Miller, J. Maxwell. The Old Testament and the Historian. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986.
  • Porter, J. R. “Old Testament Historiography.” In Tradition and Interpretation, ed. G. W. Anderson, 125-62. Oxford: Clarendon, 1979.
  • Provan, Ian W. “Ideologies, Literary and Critical: Reflections on Recent Writing on the History of Israel.” JBL 114 (1995): 585-606.
  • Reid, Garnett H. “Minimalism and Biblical History.” BSac 155 (1998): 394-410.
  • Sasson, Jack M. “On Choosing Models for Recreating Israelite Pre-Monarchic History.” JSOT 21 (1981): 3-24.
  • Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. Ancient Conquest Accounts: A Study in Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical History Writing. JSOTSup 98. Sheffield: JSOT, 1990.

OT History

  • Albertz, Rainer. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. Translated by John Bowden. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
  • ________. Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. Atlanta: SBL, 2003.
  • Bright, John. A History of Israel. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 2000.
  • Davies, Philip R. In Search of Ancient Israel. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1992.
  • Grabbe, Lester L. Can a History of Israel be Written? Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1997.
  • Halpern, Baruch. “The State of Israelite History.” In Reconsidering Israel and Judah: Recent Studies on the Deuteronomistic History, ed. Gary N. Knoppers and J. Gordon McConville, 540-65. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2000.
  • Hoffmeier, James Karl. Israel in Egypt: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Exodus Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Kitchen, Kenneth A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.
  • Miller, J. Maxwell, and John H. Hayes. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1986.
  • Provan, Iain, V. Philips Long, and Tremper Longman, III. A Biblical History of Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2003.
  • Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Ancient Near Eastern History

  • Briant, Pierre. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Translated by Peter T. Daniels. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002.
  • Dothan, Trude, and Moshe Dothan. People of the Sea: The Search for the Philistines. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
  • Oppenheim, Leo. Ancient Mesopotamia. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Tadmor, H. and M. Weinfeld, eds. History, Historiography and Interpretation: Studies in Biblical and Cuneiform Literatures. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1983.
  • Yamauchi, Edwin M. Persia and the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1990.

Religion and Institutions

  • Alt, Albrecht. Essays on Old Testament History and Religion. Translated by R. A. Wilson. Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.
  • Clements, R. E. God and Temple. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1965.
  • Cross, Frank Moore. Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.
  • Day, John. God’s Conflict with the Dragon and the Sea. Echoes of a Canaanite Myth in the Old Testament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Gaster, Theodore H. Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament. 2 vols. Reprint ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.
  • Haran, Menahem. Temples and Temple Service. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.
  • Hillers, D. Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1969.
  • Kaufmann, Y. The Religion of Israel. Translated by M. Greenberg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.
  • Keel, Othmar and Christoph Uehlinger. Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God: In Ancient Israel. Translated by A. W. Mahnke. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997.
  • Kraus, Joachim. Worship in Ancient Israel. Richmond: John Knox, 1966.
  • McCarthy, D. J. Treaty and Covenant. Rev. ed. Rome: Biblical Institute, 1981.
  • Mendenhall, George E. Law and Covenant in Israel and the Ancient Near East. Pittsburgh: Biblical Colloquium, 1955.
  • Miller, Patrick. The Religion of Ancient Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox, 2000.
  • Mullen, E. T. The Assembly of the Gods: The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature. HSM 24. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1980.
  • Weinfeld, Moshe. “The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East.” JAOS 90 (1970).


  • Baker, David. Two Testaments, One Bible: A Study of the Theological Relationship between the Old and New Testaments. Rev. ed. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1991.
  • Barr, James. The Concept of Biblical Theology: An Old Testament Perspective. Minneapolis:
  • Fortress, 1999.
  • Blaising, Craig. “The Future of Israel as a Theological Question.” JETS 44 (2001): 435-50.
  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph. “Old Testament Theology and the Jewish-Christian Connection.” JSOT 28 (1984): 3-15.
  • Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997.
  • Childs, Brevard. Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on Christian Bible. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. Pages 1-94 only.
  • Collins, John J. “Is a Critical Biblical Theology Possible?” In The Hebrew Bible and Its Interpreters, eds. W. H. Propp, et al. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
  • Depmster, Stephen. Dominion and Dynasty: A Biblical Theology of the Hebrew Bible. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2003.
  • Dumbrell, William J. Covenant and Creation: An Old Testament Covenantal Theology. London: Paternoster, 1984.
  • Eichrodt, W. Theology of the Old Testament. Translated by J. A. Baker. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961-65.
  • Fretheim, Terence E. The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective. Overtures to Biblical Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.
  • Goldingay, John. Israel’s Gospel. Vol. 1 of Old Testament Theology. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 2003.
  • Gowan, Donald E. Eschatology in the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Fortress, 2000.
  • ________. Theology in Exodus. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994.
  • Hasel, Gerhard. Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate. 4th ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.
  • ________. “Proposals for a Canonical Biblical Theology.” AUSS 34 (1996): 23-33.
  • ________. “Recent Models of Biblical Theology: Three Major Perspectives.” AUSS 33 (1995): 55-75.
  • Hayes, John H. and Frederick Prussne
    r. Old Testament Theology: Its History and Development. Atlanta: John Knox, 1985.
  • House, Paul R. Old Testament Theology. Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1998.
  • Longman, Tremper III, and D. Reid. God is a Warrior: Studies in Old Testament Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.
  • Ollenburger, B. C., et al, eds. The Flowering of Old Testament Theology. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1992.
  • Preuss, Horst Dietrich. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. The Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1995-96.
  • Rendtorff, Rolf. The Canonical Hebrew Bible: A Theology of the Old Testament. Leiden: Deo, 2005.
  • Sailhamer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1995.
  • von Rad, Gerhard. Old Testament Theology. Translated by D. M. G. Stalker. 2 vols. The Old Testament Library. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.
  • Waltke, Bruce K. “The Book of Proverbs and Old Testament Theology.” BSac 136 (1979): 302-17.
  • ________. “The Phenomenon of Conditionality within Unconditional Covenants.” In Israel’s Apostasy and Restoration, ed. A. Gileadi, 123-39. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.
  • Wright, G. Ernest. The God Who Acts. London: SCM, 1952.


  • Alt, Albrecht. “The Origins of Israelite Law.” In Essays on Old Testament History and Religion, 79-132. Oxford: Blackwell, 1966; reprint, Garden City: Doubleday, 1968.
  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Wisdom and Law in the Old Testament. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Carmichael, Calum. The Origins of Biblical Law: The Decalogues and the Book of the Covenant. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.
  • Gunkel, Hermann. The Legends of Genesis. New York: Schocken, 1964.
  • Heidel, Alexander. The Babylonian Genesis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
  • Kikawada, Isaac M., and Arthur Quinn. Before Abraham Was: The Unity of Genesis 1-11. Nashville: Abingdon, 1985.
  • Mathews, Kenneth. Genesis 1-11. Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 1996.
  • Sailhamer, John. The Pentateuch as Narrative. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1992.
  • ________. “The Mosaic Law and the Theology of the Pentateuch.” WTJ 53 (1991): 241-61.
  • Thompson, Thomas L. The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1974.
  • Van Seters, Abraham in History and Tradition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Weinfeld, Moshe. Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomistic School. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.


  • Albright, William F. “Samuel and the Beginnings of the Prophetic Movement.” In Interpreting the Prophetic Tradition, ed. H. Orlinsky, 151-76. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union, 1969.
  • Barton, John. Oracles of God: Perceptions of Ancient Prophecy in Israel after the Exile. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph. A History of Prophecy in Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983.
  • Bright, John. Covenant and Promise: The Prophetic Understanding of the Future in Preexilic Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976.
  • Clements, R. E. Old Testament Prophecy: From Oracles to Canon. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1996.
  • Gowan, Donald E. Theology of the Prophetic Books: The Death and Resurrection of Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.
  • Koch, Klaus. The Prophets. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983-1984.
  • ________. The Rediscovery of Apocalyptic: A Polemical Work on a Neglected Area of Biblical Studies and Its Damaging Effects on Theology and Philosophy. Studies in Biblical Theology. London: SCM, 1972.
  • Lindblom, Johannes. Prophecy in Ancient Israel. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1962.
  • McKane, William. Prophets and Wise Men. London: SCM, 1965.
  • Petersen, David. The Roles of Israel’s Prophets. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 17. Sheffield: JSOT, 1981.
  • Sawyer, John F. Prophecy and the Biblical Prophets. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • VanGemeren, Willem A. Interpreting the Prophetic Word. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.
  • Westermann, Claus. Basic Forms of Prophetic Speech. Translated by H. C. White. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1991.
  • Wilson, Robert R. Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980.


  • Blenkinsopp, John. Wisdom and Law in the Old Testament. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Clements, Ronald E. Wisdom in Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Crenshaw, J. L. Education in Ancient Israel: Across the Deadening Silence. Garden City: Doubleday, 1998.
  • ________, ed. Studies in Ancient Israelite Wisdom. New York: KTAV, 1976.
  • Day, John, Robert P. Gordon, and Hugh G. M. Williamson, eds. Wisdom in Ancient Israel. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995
  • Gammie, John G., and Leo G. Perdue, eds. The Sage in Israel and the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
  • Geller, Stephen A. “Wisdom, Nature and Piety in Some Biblical Psalms.” In Riches Hidden in Secret Places: Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Memory of Thorkild Jacobsen, ed. Tzvi Abusch. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002.
  • Hurvitz, A. “Wisdom Vocabulary in the Hebrew Bible: A Contribution to the Study of ‘Wisdom Psalms.’“ VT 38 (1988): 41-51.
  • Murphy, Roland. The Tree of Life: An Exploration of Biblical Wisdom Literature. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996.
  • Perdue, Leo G., B. Scott, and W. J. Wiseman, eds. In Search of Wisdom: Essays in Memory of
  • John G. Gammie. Louisville: Westminster, John Knox, 1993.
  • ________. Wisdom & Creation: The Theology of Wisdom Literature. Nashville: Abingdon, 1994.
  • Scott, R. B. Y. The Way of Wisdom in the Old Testament. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
  • Skehan, Patrick W. Studies in Israelite Poetry and Wisdom. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association, 1971.
  • von Rad, Gerhard. Wisdom in Israel. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity, 1972.
  • Weeks, Stuart. Early Israelite Wisdom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Wright, Addison G. “The Riddle of the Sphinx: The Structure of the Book of Qoheleth.” CBQ 30 (1968): 313-4.
  • Zimmerli, W. “Concerning the Structure of Old Testament Wisdom.” In Studies in Ancient Israelite Wisdom, ed. H. Orlinsky, 175-207. New York: KTAV, 1976.
  • ________. “The Place and Limit of Wisdom in the Framework of the Old Testament Theology.” SJT 17 (1963): 146-58.


  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Prophecy and Canon: A Contribution to the Study of Jewish Origins. South Bend, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1977.
  • Clifford, R. J. The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament. HSM 4. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
  • Collins, John J. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.
  • ________. “The Place of Apocalypticism in the Religion of Israel.” In Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of Frank Moore Cross, ed. P. D. Miller, Jr., P. D. Hanson, and S. D. McBride, 539-74. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.
  • Hanson, Paul D. The Dawn of Apocalyptic: The Historical and Sociological Roots of Jewish Apocalyptic Eschatology. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979.
  • Hellholm, David, ed. Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Apocalypticism, Uppsala, August 12-17, 1979. 2nd enl. ed. Tübingen: Mohr, 1989.
  • Miller, P. D., Jr. The Divine Warrior in Early Israel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.
  • Stone, M. “Lists of Revealed Things in the Apocalyptic Literature.” In Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God, ed. F. M. Cross,
    Jr., et al, 414-52. Garden City: Doubleday, 1976.



  • Bergsträsser, G. Hebräische Grammatik. Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1918.
  • Joüon, P., and T. Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. 2 vols. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1991.
  • Kautsch, E. Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar. Edited by A. E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978.
  • Lambdin, Thomas O. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Scribners, 1971.
  • Waltke, Bruce, and Michael O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Syntax. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.

History of the Hebrew Language/ Linguistics

  • Barr, James. The Semantics of Biblical Language. Reprint ed. London: SCM, 1983.
  • Blau, Joshua. “Hebrew and North West Semitic: Reflections on the Classification of the Semitic Languages.” HAR 2 (1978): 21-41.
  • ________. Topics in Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1998.
  • Fensham, F. C. “The Use of the Suffix Conjugation and the Prefix Conjugation in a Few Old Hebrew Poems.” JNSL 6 (1978): 9-18.
  • Garr, W. Randall. Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine 1000-586 BCE. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.
  • Gogel, Sandra. A Grammar of Epigraphic Hebrew. Atlanta: Scholars, 1998.
  • Harris, Zelig S. Development of the Canaanite Dialects. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1939.
  • Hurvitz, Avi. “Can Biblical Texts be Dated Linguistically? Chronological Perspectives in the Historical Study of Biblical Hebrew.” In Congress Volume: Oslo, 1998, ed. A. Lemaire and M. Sæbo, 143-60. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
  • Kahle, Paul. The Cairo Genizah. London: Oxford University Press, 1947. Pp. 86-110.
  • Lyons, John. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
  • Moscati, Sabatino, et al. An Introduction to the Comparative Study of the Semitic Languages. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1964.
  • Kutscher, E. Y. A History of the Hebrew Language. Edited by R. Kutscher. Leiden: Brill, 1982.
  • Qimron, E. The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Atlanta: Scholars, 1986.
  • ________. “Observations on the History of Early Hebrew (1000 BCE – 200 CE) in the Light of the Dead Sea Documents.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research, ed. D. Dimant and U. Rappaport, 351-61. Leiden: Brill, 1992.
  • Rooker, Mark F. “Dating Isaiah 40-66: What Does the Linguistic Evidence Say?” WTJ 58 (1996): 303-12.
  • ________. “Diachronic Analysis and the Features of Late Biblical Hebrew.” Bulletin for Biblical Research 4 (1994): 135-44.
  • ________. “The Diachronic Study of Biblical Hebrew.” JNSL 14 (1988): 199-214.
  • ________. “Ezekiel and the Typology of Biblical Hebrew.” HAR 12 (1990): 133-55.
  • Sáenz-Badillos, Angel. A History of the Hebrew Language. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Phonology, Orthography, and Writing

  • Freedman, David Noel, and Frank Moore Cross, Jr. Early Hebrew Orthography. New Haven: American Oriental Society, 1952.
  • Gelb, I. J. A Study of Writing. Rev. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
  • Kaufman, Stephen A. “The Pitfalls of Typology: On the Early History of the Alphabet.” HUCA 57 (1986): 1-14.
  • Lambdin, Thomas O. “Philippi’s Law Reconsidered.” In Biblical and Related Studies Presented to Samuel Iwry, ed. A. Kort and S. Morschauser, 135-45. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1985.
  • Orlinsky, H. M. “The Origin of the Kethib-Qere System.” In Congress Volume: Oxford 1959, 184-92. VTSup 7. Leiden: Brill, 1960.
  • Speiser, Ephraim A. “The Shibboleth Incident (Judges 12:6).” In Oriental and Biblical Studies, ed. J. F. Finkelstein and M. Greenberg, 143-50. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1967.


  • Andersen, Francis I. The Hebrew Verbless Clause in the Pentateuch. Nashville: Abingdon, 1970.
  • Kaufman, Stephen A. “An Emphatic Plea for Please.” MAARAV 7 (1991): 195-98.
  • Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Student ed. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
  • Miller, Patrick D. “Vocative Lamed in the Psalter: A Reconsideration.” UF 11 (1979): 617-37.
  • Sagarin, James L. Hebrew Noun Patterns (Mishqalim). Atlanta: Scholars, 1987.


  • Blake, Frank R. “The Hebrew WAW Conversive.” JBL 63 (1944): 271-95.
  • Driver, S. R. A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (with a new introduction by W. Randall Garr). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997.
  • Greenstein, Edward L. “On the Prefixed Preterite in Biblical Hebrew.” HS 29 (1988): 7-33.
  • Goetze, Albert. “The So-called Intensive of the Semitic Languages.” JAOS 62 (1942): 1-8.
  • Held, Moshe. “The Action-Result (Factitive-Passive) Sequence of Identical Verbs in Biblical Hebrew and Ugaritic.” JBL 84 (1965): 272-82.
  • ________. “The YQTL-QTL (QTL-YQTL) Sequence of Identical Verbs in Biblical Hebrew and in Ugaritic.” In Studies and Essays in Honor of Abraham A. Neuman, ed. M. Ben-Horin, B. C. Weinryb, and S. Zeitlin, 281-90. Leiden: Brill, 1962.
  • Huehnergard, John. “The Early Hebrew Prefix-Conjugation.” HS 29 (1988): 19-23.
  • Klein, George. “The Prophetic Perfect.” JNSL 16 (1990): 45-60.
  • McFall, Leslie. The Enigma of the Hebrew Verbal System: Solutions from Ewald to the Present. Sheffield: Almond, 1982.
  • Rainey, Anson F. “Further Remarks on the Hebrew Verbal System.” HS 29 (1988): 35-42.
  • Smith, Mark S. The Origins and Development of the Waw-Consecutive: Northwest Semitic Evidence from Ugarit to Qumran. HSS 39. Atlanta: Scholars, 1991.
  • Zevit, Ziony. “Solving a Problem of the YAQTÚL Past Tense.” HS 29 (1988): 25-33.



  • Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra from BHS
  • Aramaic Papyri No. 30 (Elephantine)

Grammars and Readings

  • Driver, G. R. Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.
  • Gibson, J. C. L. Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, vol. 2, Aramaic Inscriptions, Including Inscriptions in the Dialect of Zenjirli. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975.
  • Greenspahn, Frederick. An Introduction to Aramaic. Atlanta: Scholars, 1999.
  • Rosenthal, Franz. A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1974.



  • Texts from Cyrus Gordon’s Ugaritic Grammar – 68:6-26; 137:16-34; 1184; 1032.

Grammars and Resources

  • Avishur, Yitzhak. Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1994.
  • Brooke, George J., A. Curtis, and J. F. Healey, eds. Ugarit and the Bible: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ugarit and the Bible. Münster: Ugarit Verlag, 1994.
  • Clifford, R. J. The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and Old Testament. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1972.
  • Craigie, P. C. “Parallel Word Pairs in Ugaritic Poetry.” UF 11 (1979): 135-40.
  • Dahood, M. J. Proverbs and Northwest Semitic Philology. Rome: Pontifico Biblico Instituto, 1971.
  • Gordon, Cyrus H. Ugaritic Textbook: Grammar. Analecta Orientalia 38. Rome: Pontificum Institutum Biblicum, 1965.
  • Korpel, Marjo, and J. C. deMoor. “Fundamentals of Ugaritic and Hebrew Poetry.” UF 18 (1986): 173-212.
  • Miller, P. D. The Divine Warrior in Early Israel. HSM 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1973.< /li>
  • Pardee, Dennis. Ritual and Cult at Ugarit. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
  • ________. “Ugaritic Studies at the End of the 20th Century.” BASOR 320 (2000): 49-86.
  • Parker, Simon B. Ugaritic Narrative Poetry. Translated by Mark S. Smith, et.al. Writings from the Ancient World. Winona Lake: Scholars Press, 1997.
  • Egert, S. A Basic Grammar of the Ugaritic Language: With Selected Texts and Glossary. Berkley: University of California, 1984.
  • Sivan, D. A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. Leiden: Brill, 2001.


Translation – Paleo-Hebrew

  • The Gezer Calendar; The Siloam Tunnel Inscription; Yavneh Yam (Mesad Hashavyahu); The Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone); Lachish Letters (?) 2, 3, 4

Translation – Qumran

  • 1QIsa (Is. 42:1-17); The Rule of the Community – Cols. 1-3; Temple Scroll – Col. 45:7-47

Readings in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions

  • Ahituv, S. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions. 1992.
  • Albright, William F. “The Gezer Calendar.” BASOR 92 (1943): 16-26.
  • Amusin, J. D., and M. L. Heltzer. “The Inscription from Mesad Hashavyahu.” IEJ 14 (1964): 148-59.
  • Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. “The Development of the Jewish Scripts.” In The Bible and the Ancient Near East, ed. G. E. Wright, 133-202. New York: Doubleday, 1961.
  • ________. “The Origin and Early Evolution of the Alphabet.” ErIsr 8 (1967): 8-24.
  • Davies, G. I. Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Dearman, Andrew, ed. Studies in the Mesha Inscription and Moab. Atlanta: Scholars, 1989.
  • Faust, Avraham. “A Note on Hezekiah’s Tunnel and the Siloam Inscription.” JSOT 90 (2000): 3-9.
  • Moran, William L., trans. and ed. The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
  • Parker, Simon B. Stories in Scripture and Inscriptions: Comparative Studies on Narratives in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions and the Hebrew Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Qumran Readings and Resources

  • Abegg, Martin G. “The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, ed. P. W. Flint and J. C. Vanderkam, 325-58. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
  • Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. The Ancient Library of Qumran. Rev. ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.
  • Cross, Frank Moore, Jr., and Shemaryahu Talmon. Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975.
  • Dimant, Devorah. “The Library of Qumran: Its Content and Character.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, ed. P. W. Flint and J. C. Vanderkam, 379-402. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
  • Flint, Peter. “The Book of Psalms in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls.” VT 48 (1998): 453-72.
  • Herbert, E. D., and E. Tov, eds. The Bible as Book: The Hebrew Bible and Judaean Desert Discoveries. New Castle: Oak Knoll, 2002.
  • Klein, Ralph W. Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: The Septuagint after Qumran. GBS. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1974.
  • Mathews, K. A. “The Background of the Paleo-Hebrew Texts at Qumran.” In The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman, ed. C. L. Meyers and M. O’Connor, 549-68. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1983.
  • Tov, Emanuel. “Scribal Practices Reflected in the Texts from the Judaean Desert.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, ed. P. W. Flint and J. C. Vanderkam, 403-29. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
  • Ulrich, Eugene. “The Bible in the Making: The Scriptures Found at Qumran.” In The Bible at Qumran: Text, Shape, and Interpretation, ed. P. W. Flint, 51-66. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.
  • Vanderkam, James and Peter Flint. The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.